Nose cancer or Sinus cancer and nasal cavity is a disease in which cancer cell forms in the tissues of the paranasal sinus and nasal cavity. Paranasal sinus is a small hollow area around the nose. They lines up with cells that produces mucus which keep your nose wet. The nasal cavity is a passage way, air passes through it on the way to your throat when you breathe. The nose is the starting of the respiratory tract. Nostrils are the two openings in the nose. The area just inside the nostril is nasal vestibule. Vestibule opens into the nasal cavity. The nasal cavity is split into two parts left and right sides by a wall of cartilage and bone (called nasal septum). The nasal cavity is above the roof of the mouth and curves down at the back to join the throat.
There are four pairs of paranasal sinus
- Maxillary sinuses are behind the cheeks, below the eyes and shapes like pyramids.
- Frontal sinuses are above the nose behind the eyebrows in the lower forehead.
- Spheroid sinus forms itself in the sphenoid These are in the center of the skull behind the nose.
- Ethmoid sinuses are beside the upper nose, between the eyes.
People with nasal cavity paranasal sinuses cancer may experience the following signs and symptoms
- A sinus infection that doesn’t cure with anti-biotics
- Headaches or pain in sinus space
- Eye tearing
- Pain in teeth
- A lump on face and nose
- Runny nose
- Nose bleeds
- Decreased sense of smell
- Painful sores in nose, eyes, ears
- Tip of nose red and sore to touch
- Weight loss
- A lump in the neck
- A lump or sore inside the nose that does not heal
Sometimes people with nasal cavity or paranasal sinus cancer don’t show any of these signs. In fact, this type of cancer diagnosed in their later stages because early-stage does not show any nose cancer symptoms.
A person who noticed any of these signs may be having stage 1 or Stage 4 sinus cancer symptoms, he must examine ENT sinus doctor and ask for detail physical examination.
Anything that increases the chances of getting the disease is known as a risk factor. Risk factor for paranasal sinus and nasal cavity factor include the following
Being exposed to certain chemicals or dust such as
- Sawmill work
- Furniture work
- Flour mill
- Metal painting
Being infected with (HPV) Human papillomavirus group of virus that affects the skin and moist membranes e.g. mouth and throat.
After paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity cancer has been diagnosed, doctor will perform tests to find out if cancer cells have spread within the paranasal sinus and nasal cavity or the other parts of the body. The information gathered from the staging process determines the stage of the disease and by knowing the exact stage, nose cancer treatment is easy to plan. Following tests determines the staging process.
In this process, a thin, long, flexible tube attached with a camera inserted into the nose to examine the area.
In this procedure, a small sample of tissue is removed and examined. It may be done by needle or during endoscopy.
In this process series of telescopes are connected and used to examine your upper airway. General anesthetic used in this process.
A process that gives detailed pictures of the area inside the body taken from different angles. Pictures taken by a computer, attached to the x-ray machine. It may include a dye with a vain or swallowed to help the organs or tissues to show up more or clear detail. This process is called computed tomography.
An x-ray of the organs and bones inside the chest. X-ray is a type of energy beam that makes a picture of nose cancer inside the body.
In this process, radioactive glucose is injected into a vein. Pet scanner rotates around the body and makes a picture where utilization of glucose is excessive. Tumor cells show up brighter in the picture because they take more amount of glucose than normal cells do.
In this process magnet, radio waves and computer combines to make a series of detailed pictures, of areas inside the body using gadolinium (substance) being injected into a vein. This substance collects around the cancer cells and they show up brighter in the pic.
This procedure is called MRI
After diagnosed paranasal and nasal cavity cancer, different tests are done to find out the stage of cancer. The information collected from the staging process tells about the stage of the disease.
These are 3 ways that cancer spreads in the body
- Lymph system
Cancer spreads from where it began to nearby areas.
Cancer spreads from where it began to lymph system via lymph vessels to other parts.
Cancer spreads to the other parts of the body by the blood.
Stages of Maxillary Sinus Cancer
Stage 0 is called carcinoma in situ. In this stage, abnormal cells are present in the maxillary sinus and these abnormal cells spread into nearby areas.
It means cancer has not spread yet it may have grown into bones surrounding the nasal cavity.
In this stage, cancer has spread to the roof of the mouth and nose and spread to surrounding tissue.
In this stage, cancer has spread to any of the following
- The eye socket
- The base of the skull
- The ethmoid sinuses
Having stage 3 cancer could also mean that cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck which is not more than 3cm across.
Stage 4 is an advanced stage of cancer, even cancer has not spread to the lymph node or other parts of the body.
It also means one of the 3 things
- Cancer has been spread to other parts of the body such as lungs, liver, brain
- It has spread into other structure such as nose, neck, and skin
- Cancer has spread to more than one lymph node bigger than 3 cm on the same side of the neck or has spread to more than one lymph node of any size on one or both sides of the neck
Stages of the Nasal Cavity and Ethmoid Sinus Cancer
In this stage, abnormal cells are found in ethmoid sinus and may spread to other nearby areas. This stage is also called carcinoma in site.
In this stage, cancer has found only in one area (only in the nasal cavity or in ethmoid sinus) and may have spread to bones.
In this stage, cancer is found in two areas in the cavity or ethmoid sinus. Cancer has spread to other nearby areas of sinus and bones
In this stage, cancer may spread to any of the following
- The maxillary sinus
- The roof of the mouth
- The eye socket
- Bone between eyes
In this stage, cancer may also spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as cancer and the lymph node is 3cm or smaller
Stage 4 is further classified into 4A, 4B, and 4C
Cancer has spread to one lymph node on the same side of the neck as cancer and the lymph node is less than 3cm.
To more than one lymph node on the same side of the neck as original cancer and lymph nodes and are not greater than 6cm.
In this stage, cancer has spread to
- Back of the eye
- Behind nose
- Upper part of the throat
- Base of skull
In this stage, cancer may found in one or more lymph nodes of any size, anywhere in the neck.
4c refers to the stage in which cancer may be found anywhere in or near the nasal cavity and ethmoid sinus and may spread as far as the lungs.
Treatment involves are
- Surgery to remove the tumor
This implies open surgery or keyhole nose cancer surgery.
This process uses high energy radiation to kill cancerous cell before surgery to shrink it or after surgery to destroy small pieces of tumor that are left after surgery.
Doctor uses medicine to shrink tumor size or to slow down the growth of a tumor.
Nasal vestibule is the space within your nostrils. It marks the start of your nasal passages. It alludes to infection in your nasal vestibule because of excessive nose blowing, picking or pimple inside the nose. If not treated properly, it can cause nasal cellulitis, a condition in which infection travels beneath the skin. Nasal folliculitis may also be one of the causes.
Nose bleeds and cancer
If you have nose bleeds every day or frequent nose bleeds in one nostril or nose bleeds with clots, you should see your doctor because it could be a cancer of nasal cavity or lump inside nose cartilage.
Occasional nose bleeding may be a result of winter weather or blood thinning medication.
Nose Cancer Survival Rate
The Sinus cancer survival rate is relatively high as compared to other types. More than 70 out of 100 people with paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer will survive for one year or more after diagnosis. Around 50 out of 100 will survive after being diagnosed for 5 years or more.
Nose Cancer Skin
You can read Nose skin cancer and Basal cell cancer here.
Nose Cancer in Pets
Nose cancer in dogs accounts to 1-2 percent of all cancers. Nasal discharge, bloody nose, loud snoring are common symptoms. Similarly, nose cancer in cats may also have these symptoms.
Nose cancer pictures
Sores inside nose pictures
Sinus cancer pictures
Pictures of skin cancer
Sinus cancer stories will be added soon.
Can nose cancer cause death ?
Like all cancers, it could be fatal too. As per research center Canada, since 2013, the mortality rate is more than 20%.
How to stop nose bleeding ?
Nose bleeding first aid includes
- Sit or stand but don’t lie down with your head tilted backward and also don’t blow your nose
- Applying a cold compress
- Use tissue or fabric to catch the blood.
What is benign sinus tumor ?
It is a sub-type of nasal tumor. Benign and malignant tumors are uncommon and are characterized by their histological diversity
What are Maxillary sinus cancer symptoms ?
Most common are
- Pus draining from the nose
- Nasal blockage at one side
- Nose bleed
- Decreased sense of smell
Is there any relation between Nose bleeds and cancer ?
Frequent nose bleed could be one of the early symptoms. One should immediately see a doctor in case of frequent bleeding.
What are nose cancer causes ?
You can read Sinus cancer causes in risk factor.